Total Organic Carbon Analysis

Absolute Organic Carbon (TOC) is a quick strategy that examines for natural carbon and communicates the outcome as the measure of carbon found. It is a vague technique incapable to recognize different natural species and just demonstrating that natural carbon mixes are available. Natural carbon analyzers work by the assurance of the measure of all out carbon present in an example aliquot. Absolute carbon comprises of inorganic and natural carbon. The inorganic carbon, present as carbonate or bicarbonate particles, should be taken out or measured before the examination of natural carbon. When the inorganic carbon is taken out, resulting investigation of the example aliquot accepts that all carbon remaining is natural.


Technique used to eliminate inorganic carbon depends on fermentation that changes over all bicarbonate and carbonate particles to carbon dioxide that is then cleansed out of the example utilizing an idle gas. In the event that measurement of inorganic carbon is wanted it is cleansed into an identifier, else, it is vented to air. When the inorganic carbon is eliminated the leftover natural carbon is oxidized to carbon dioxide that is cleansed by the idle gas into the locator.

Carbon Measurement Techniques

In around 1630 a Flemish researcher, Jan Baptista van Helmont recognized a gas radiated by the consuming of wood as carbon dioxide. He additionally noticed that air is a mix of gases. In 1756, Joseph Black, shown that carbon dioxide happened in regular air and could be made from different mixes. In his exploration on magnesium carbonates Black created the insightful equilibrium and utilized it to quantify carbon dioxide by Loss on Ignition (LOI). The LOI test, where tests are warmed and decrease in mass is estimated, is the principal quantitative test for carbon.

Natural issue in soil has been generally estimated by LOI or substance oxidation utilizing dichromate arrangement. The dichromate, present as hexavalent chromium, responds with lessening natural carbon in solid corrosive answer for structure trivalent chromium. Titration of the unused hexavalent chromium with ferrous iron yields a technique fit for assessing the natural carbon present in an example.

A steel or coal test can be set in a heater, or warmed cylinder, and within the sight of oxygen the carbon converts to carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide can be gathered and estimated, or it very well may be dictated by a carbon dioxide explicit identifier. This steel examination mechanical assembly gives a premise to the advanced TOC analyzer. In 1924, T. D. Yenson of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company licensed a “estimating gadget” that put steel tests in a level 1000C heater that combusted carbon in an oxygen transporter gas and gathered the CO2 cryogenically. In 1948, American Cyanamid protected an IR gas analyzer, and in 1967 James Teal at Dow Chemical Company licensed (applied for in 1962) a “Technique and Apparatus for Determination of Total Carbon Content in Aqueous Systems”. This mechanical assembly is an ignition framework like Yenson’s gadget that infuses fluid examples straightforwardly into a flood of oxygen moving through a 700 – 900C heater estimating the CO2 produced by IR location. The patent expresses that recently acknowledged strategies for the assurance of carbon in water depended on synthetic oxidation techniques at moderate temperatures. As should be obvious, James Teal’s gadget is the principal ignition TOC analyzer for water and the past strategies he is alluding to is the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Greenish blue’s technique revealed an insightful scope of 2 – 500 ppm Carbon and 98% or better burning proficiency of all natural mixes tried.

Disappointed with a powerlessness to accomplish lower levels of location on seawater when utilizing existing TOC ignition analyzers (review that Teal’s analyzer has a lower breaking point of 2 mg/l), Menzel and Vaccarro (Menzel and Vacarro, The estimation of disintegrated natural and particulate carbon in seawater., Limnol., Oceanography., 9: pp 138 – 142, 1964) concocted an ampule based wet compound oxidation strategy dependent on prior work by R.F. Wilson. (Wilson, Measurement of Organic Carbon in Seawater, Limnol. Oceanography, 6; 259 – 261, 1961). Wilson processed seawater tests utilizing sodium persulfate at 100C. Menzel and Vacarro’s ampule strategy permitted the preparing of huge quantities of tests simultaneously. In 1965 Alan Fredericks and Donald W. Hood built up a TOC strategy dependent on Menzel and Vacarro’s ampule technique that decided TOC is seawater by gas chromatography. This gas chromatographic technique was subsequently adjusted to utilize an IR finder, and a recently framed organization, Oceanographic Institute Corporation (OIC) marketed the instrument. This new TOC analyzer processed examples utilizing persulfate substance oxidation via autoclaving tests encased in ampules. An autosampler busted the ampule and cleared the CO2 gas into an IR locator. This instrument was equipped for examining carbon in seawater to as low as 0.2 mg/L. The ampules had a huge preferred position in that examples could be gathered and fixed adrift forthcoming resulting absorption and investigation ashore.

Ehrhard (Deep Sea Research and Oceanography Abstracts, Vol. 16, 4, 1969, pp 393 – 394) built up a DOC strategy utilizing a Technicon autoanalyzer. This technique consolidated nonstop stream, UV illumination, and persulfate oxidation and gathered the CO2 created into a weaken sodium hydroxide arrangement estimating carbon by conductivity. Cauwet (Marine Chemistry Vol. 14, 4, 1984 pp 297 – 306) enhanced Erhard’s unique methodology by advancing pH, persulfate fixation, UV, and use of IR identification.

In 1988, Sugimara and Suzuki (Marine Chemistry 24, pp 105 – 131) revealed a high temperature synergist oxidation (HTCO) strategy for the investigation of seawater by direct infusion of 200 microliters of test into a 680C heater containing a platinum impetus. The strategy was quick, exact, and permitted shipboard investigation. In addition, the strategy revealed higher TOC levels in seawater than past strategies, in particular Menzel and Vacarro’s, prodding a discussion on whether there is undetected carbon by substance oxidation, or whether the HTCO technique delivers wrongly high outcomes. After much exploration it was resolved that there was a smidgen of truth in the two contentions. Starting outcomes created by HTCO strategies didn’t appropriately make up for high spaces brought about via carbon develop inside the burning cylinder, in any case, in any event, when made up for clear qualities the HTCO results were still marginally higher. After much exploration, it has been genuinely grounded that the HTCO strategies oxidize microorganisms, vegetation, and certain enormous atomic weight particles with more noteworthy productivity. The higher oxidation proficiency of HTCO strategies loses its incentive at lower fixations since the HTCO techniques are restricted in example volume contrasted with synthetic oxidation.

ConclusionTotal Organic Carbon (TOC) investigation is an endeavor to quantify carbon contained in natural particles and report results as a solitary worth. The worth got is reliant upon the oxidation method and no single oxidation strategy is sufficient for each reason. While high temperature synergist oxidation (HTCO) appears to be better, the more modest example volumes present testing blunder. The marginally lower oxidation effectiveness of synthetic techniques is counterbalanced by the capacity to process genuinely huge example volumes. Hence, when HTCO and compound oxidation results are looked at, despite the fact that HTCO results pattern higher than synthetic oxidation the outcomes consistently appear to exist in every others exploratory blunder. The ideal decision of analyzer ought to consistently be made dependent on proposed application and required affectability levels. For lower identifications a strategy using bigger example volumes (compound oxidation) ought to be picked. For carbon levels over 1 – 2 ppm, the decision of oxidation strategy isn’t so obvious.

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Do Not Give Up – Smoking Cessation is Possible

Smoking is an extremely hazardous enslavement, yet individuals can’t surrender it without any problem. Discover why smoking is so addictive, what are the issues that come about because of smoking, what are the treatment strategies for it, what the advantages of stopping are and considerably more about smoking here.

Why is Smoking So Addictive?

Smoking surges nicotine to the mind and this is the quickest strategy for conveyance; smoking likewise gives smokers exact power over their nicotine consumption. Hence, both ‘speed and control’ incredibly improve the addictive impact of nicotine on the cerebrum. Smoking really acquaints nicotine with the pneumonic beds of the lungs from where nicotine is straightforwardly moved to the cerebrum in a flash.

Nicotine imitates the synapse acetylcholine; it ties to and enacts the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. When nicotine arrives at the cerebrum, it rapidly spreads to the initiated mind areas, for example, prize, memory and learning focuses. These terminating receptors cause the arrival of dopamine, a synapse that is related with delight and enslavement. In this way, to keep up these dopamine levels, an individual necessities to smoke regularly. Smoking may really keep up dopamine levels by lessening chemicals that separate it or by expanding the degree of particles that restrain dopamine tidy up.

At the same time, nicotine additionally impacts different zones of the mind that control mind-set, energy levels and memory just as cause durable neurological changes. Thus, the mind becomes accustomed to a steady portion of nicotine and along these lines when you quit smoking, you experience withdrawal indications. This additionally makes it a troublesome propensity to kick.

What is Passive Smoking and What Are the Risks?

Aloof smoking can be characterized as compulsory inward breath of used tobacco smoke. This used tobacco smoke is a combination of smoke breathed out by dynamic smokers just as smoke delivered from seething tobacco, weakened with surrounding air. Inactive smoking by and large happens in shut conditions, yet open conditions are similarly inclined. Inactive smokers are additionally presented to cancer-causing agents and harmful segments present in used tobacco smoke.

Latent smoking can effectsly affect a person’s wellbeing. The wellbeing impacts of uninvolved smoking are as genuine and incapacitating as smoking itself. The dangers laid out beneath have been connected with detached smoking.

Malignancy – About 3,000 disease related non smoker passings are straightforwardly credited to aloof smoking every year.

Heart Diseases – Approximately 50,000 non smoker passings happen from heart related issues and can be connected to aloof smoking.

Respiratory Diseases and Problems – Second hand smoke causes higher paces of lower respiratory contaminations, including bronchitis and pneumonia. It is likewise a contributory factor for upper respiratory disturbance and contaminations just as diminished lung work.

Ear Infections – Passive smoking is responsible for an expanded number of ear contaminations.

Low Birth Weight – Second hand smoke is answerable for 10,000 low birth weight births a year and is a central point for some baby passings.

Asthma – Second hand smoke is answerable for almost 8,000 new instances of asthma every year.

Unexpected Infant Death Syndrome – Passive smoking is identified with almost 2,000 instances of SIDS every year.

Still births – Passive smoking is additionally responsible for an expanded danger of still births and unconstrained fetus removals.

What Problems Can Occur From Smoking?

Smoking is unsafe and the threats of smoking are not kidding. Tobacco smoke contains 43 malignant growth causing (cancer-causing) exacerbates other than 400 different poisons that incorporate nicotine and tar. Nicotine is the addictive substance in tobacco and tar clogs the lungs, hindering ordinary relaxing. Moreover, smoking causes lung and throat malignancy, coronary illness, emphysema, just as bronchial and lung issues.

Non smokers are additionally in danger of creating smoking related sicknesses through latent smoking. A pregnant lady who smokes builds the odds of her infant kicking the bucket from SIDS, being underweight and having conduct issues. The world’s driving reason for death and inability, smoking-related diseases cause 30 million passings for every year.

How Should one respond If He Wants to Give up Smoking?

Quitting any pretense of smoking is the most troublesome thing. In this way, to quit any pretense of smoking, you:

Should want to quit any pretense of smoking and make a solid will to maintain a strategic distance from a smoking backslide

Should find out about the impacts of smoking, comprehend its outcomes and face the way that you need to quit smoking and follow, complete and keep a quit smoking arrangement

Whenever you have decided to stop smoking, a large portion of the fight is won; on the grounds that most smokers don’t consider stopping. Smokers frequently attempt to stop more than once before they really succeed. In any case, proceeding to attempt additionally needs coarseness and determination; it likewise shows that you are so dedicated to the reason.

Whenever you have found out about the perils of smoking, you will feel more dedicated to stop. Finding out about the wellbeing suggestions is sufficient to stun a great many people into stopping rapidly.

You should get ready to stop smoking. You should separate yourself from companions, circumstances or spots that force you to smoke. Be encircled by individuals who can assist you with your drive.

On the off chance that you can’t stop immediately, don’t spare a moment to utilize quit smoking guides like drugs and NRTs. A great many people can stop and remain quit with outer assistance.

On the off chance that you need to stop smoking and stay a loser, you need to avoid enticement and relentless nicotine yearnings. ‘Making mistakes’ will just prompt a backslide so keep yourself roused to remain smoke free.

What Treatment Options are Available to Help Stop Smoking?

A few people have a solid assurance to stop smoking by means of the immediately technique; this is accomplished by sheer resolve alone. Notwithstanding, most smoker’s think that its hard to stop along these lines and thusly expect treatment to help them quit smoking. A few people may become non-smokers through directing alone yet their numbers can be depended on the fingertips. Guiding reinforces an individual’s inspiration to stop and keeps him/her persuaded until he/she can stop effectively.

Numerous smokers exploit nicotine substitution treatment (NRTs) to help them quit smoking. This treatment attempts to alleviate an individual from nicotine withdrawal side effects by giving nicotine remotely. This deliberate admission of nicotine via nicotine biting gums, nicotine patches, nicotine tabs, capsules, nicotine nasal shower and inhalators, function admirably for certain individuals. Simultaneously these individuals are all around shielded from other destructive poisons present in tobacco smoke. In any case, as NRTs give nicotine, there is consistently an opportunity that individual may get re-dependent on nicotine.

At present, without nicotine drug for smoking discontinuance, for example, Zyban (bupropion) and Chantix Varenicline (known as Champix in Europe) are the most progressive and the most favored techniques for stopping smoking. These treatment prescriptions have been endorsed by the FDA as viable smoking end drugs. Be that as it may, Chantix is liked over Zyban as it gives alleviation from nicotine withdrawal manifestations as well as lessens the delight got from smoking.

Achievement rates are a lot higher with Chantix smoking end drug when contrasted with that of Zyban smoking end pill; yet, both the medications have a lot of results. While Chantix causes sickness, blockage, fart, sleep deprivation, change in taste, increment in hunger, weariness, dry mouth and enlarged inclination, Zyban causes dry mouth, a sleeping disorder, changes in craving, unsettling, cerebral pains, butterflies, skin rash and seizures.

What are The Benefits of Quitting?

Advantages of smoking suspension medicines are complex. You will start to see wonderful changes in your body. Your feeling of smell and taste improve, you inhale simpler and your smoker’s hack starts to vanish; the long reach eventual outcomes of stopping really signal the start of a better life. Above all, you improve your odds for a more extended life since now you have a decreased danger from coronary illness, stroke, constant bronchitis, emphysema, and a few sorts of tumors. You can stop smoking and profit advantages, for example,

Living longer and getting a charge out of an improved personal satisfaction

Recapturing the adoration and regard of your friends and family

Saving time spent on smoking for other powerful employments

Living better through counteraction of smoking related illnesses

Smelling better, having clean flawless teeth

Savoring the flavor of food

Having a better skin

Appreciating a superior sexual coexistence; smoking end is known to improve ripeness and diminish your danger of creating erectile brokenness

Bringing forth sound youngsters

Being monetarily in an ideal situation

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Understanding Online Sportsbook Bonus

Since the internet started in the early 1990’s, online sportsbooks have been online providing a haven for the sports bettor to place winning bets. These online sportsbooks quickly became an alternate to the Las Vegas casino sportsbooks and provide people without access to a brick and mortar sportsbook the capability to place safe and secure sporting bets.

The online gambling industry has grown into a worldwide billion dollar industry. There has been thousands of sportsbooks that have launched online since the advent of the internet. Many of those sites are no longer active online. But there are a nice group of reputable online sportsbook brands offering awesome sports betting experiences to the online sports bettor. This growth has made obtaining and retaining sports bettors increasingly more competitive. There are a few things you should research before choosing a sportsbook and opening an account.

Online Sportsbook Deposit Bonuses

There are incredible opportunities for the online sports bettor in the form of free money when opening an online sportsbook account. Online sportsbooks offer a couple different bonuses to entice bettors to places sports bets at their sportsbooks. Sportsbook deposit bonuses are usually offered in two forms: sign up bonuses and reload bonuses.

It is safe to say that every sportsbook online offers some sort of sign up deposit bonus to all bettors that open an account at their website. The bonus is usually a certain percentage of the initial deposit such as 20% or more. This bonus money is free money that is added to your online betting bankroll.



The Need For An Entertainment Lawyer In Film Production

Does the film maker truly need a film legal advisor or diversion lawyer as an issue of expert practice? An amusement legal advisor’s own predisposition and my stacking of the inquiry in any case, which may normally show a “yes” answer 100% of the time – the candid answer is, “it depends”. Various makers these days are themselves film legal advisors, diversion lawyers, or different kinds of legal counselors, thus, regularly can deal with themselves. However, the film makers to stress over, are the ones who go about as though they are amusement legal counselors – yet without a permit or diversion lawyer lawful experience to back it up. Filmmaking and movie practice involve an industry wherein nowadays, tragically, “feign” and “rave” now and then fill in alternative for real information and experience. Yet, “feigned” records and insufficient creation techniques won’t ever get away from the prepared eye of amusement lawyers working for the studios, the wholesalers, the banks, or the mistakes and-exclusions (E&O) protection transporters. Therefore alone, I assume, the work capacity of film creation advice and amusement legal counselor is as yet secure.

I likewise assume that there will consistently be a couple of fortunate movie producers who, all through the whole creation measure, fly under the notorious radar without amusement lawyer backup. They will apparently evade traps and liabilities like flying bats are presumed to stay away from individuals’ hair. Via similarity, probably the closest companion hasn’t had any medical coverage for quite a long time, and he is as yet fit as a fiddle and financially above water – this week, at any rate. Taken in the total, a few people will consistently be more fortunate than others, and a few people will consistently be more disposed than others to roll the dice.


The film and amusement attorney can in this manner save the maker large numbers of those traps. How? By unwavering discernment, cautious arranging, and – this is indisputably the key – gifted, smart and complete documentation of all film creation and related action. The film attorney ought not be considered as basically the individual looking to build up consistence. Of course, the amusement legal counselor may here and there be the person who says “no”. However, n, over the span of lawful portrayal, help the maker as a powerful business specialist, as well. On the off chance that that diversion legal counselor has been associated with scores of film creations, at that point the movie maker who enlists that film legal advisor amusement lawyer profits by that very reserve of involvement. Truly, it some of the time might be hard to extend the film financial plan to take into consideration counsel, yet proficient producers will in general view the legitimate expense use to be a fixed, unsurprising, and vital one – much the same as the fixed commitment of lease for the creation office, or the expense of film for the cameras. While some film and diversion legal counselors may value themselves out of the value scope of the normal autonomous film maker, other amusement lawyers don’t.

Enough over-simplifications. For what explicit assignments should a maker ordinarily hold a film legal counselor and diversion lawyer?:

1. Fuse, OR FORMATION OF AN “LLC”: To reword Michael Douglas’ Gordon Gekko character in the movie “Money Street” when addressing Bud Fox while on the morning sea shore on the larger than usual cell phone, this substance development issue as a rule comprises the diversion lawyer’s “reminder” to the film maker, telling the film maker that the time has come. In the event that the maker doesn’t appropriately make, document, and keep a corporate or other fitting element through which to direct business, and if the movie maker doesn’t from that point bend over backward to keep that element protected, says the amusement legal counselor, at that point the movie maker is conceivably harming oneself. Without the shield against obligation that a substance can give, the diversion lawyer believes, the movie maker’s very own resources (like house, vehicle, financial balance) are in danger and, in a most dire outcome imaginable, could eventually be seized to fulfill the obligations and liabilities of the film maker’s business. At the end of the day:

Understanding: “Specialist, it harms my head when I do that”.

Specialist: “So? Try not”.

Like it or not, the film legal advisor amusement lawyer proceeds, “Film is a speculative business, and the measurable greater part of movies can bomb monetarily – even at the San Fernando Valley film studio level. It is unreasonable to maintain a film business or some other type of business out of one’s very own financial balance”. Plus, it looks amateurish, a genuine concern if the maker needs to draw in ability, investors, and merchants anytime later on.

The decisions of where and how to record an element are regularly incited by amusement legal counselors however then determined by circumstance explicit factors, including charge concerns identifying with the film or movie organization now and again. The film maker should let an amusement lawyer do it and do it accurately. Substance creation is moderate. Great attorneys don’t take a gander at consolidating a customer as a benefit place at any rate, in view of the undeniable potential for new business that a substance creation brings. While the film maker ought to know that under U.S. law a customer can fire his/her legal counselor whenever by any means, numerous diversion legal advisors who do the element creation work get requested to accomplish further work for that equivalent customer – particularly if the amusement lawyer charges the principal work sensibly.

I wouldn’t suggest self-joining by a non-legal advisor – anything else than I would tell a film maker customer what entertainers to employ in a movie – or anything else than I would tell a D.P.- customer what focal point to use on a particular film shot. As will be valid on a film creation set, everyone has their own responsibility to take care of. What’s more, I accept that when the maker lets an equipped amusement legal counselor do their work, things will begin to gel for the film creation in manners that couldn’t be initially anticipated by the movie maker.

2. Requesting INVESTMENT: This issue likewise regularly comprises a reminder of sorts. Suppose that the film maker needs to make a movie with others’ cash. (Actually no, not a bizarre situation). The film maker will probably begin requesting assets for the film from alleged “latent” financial specialists in quite a few potential manners, and may really begin gathering some monies therefore. Once in a while this happens preceding the diversion legal counselor catching wind of it post facto from their customer.

In the event that the film maker isn’t a legal advisor, at that point the maker ought not consider “attempting this at home”. Like it or not, the amusement attorney believes, the film maker will consequently be offering protections to individuals. On the off chance that the maker guarantees financial specialists some pure fantasy brings about the setting of this characteristically speculative business called film, and afterward gathers cash based on that portrayal, trust me, the film maker will have significantly more grave issues than still, small voice to manage. Protections consistence work is among the most troublesome of issues looked by a diversion lawyer.

As both diversion attorneys and protections legal advisors will believe, messing up a requesting for film (or some other) speculation can have serious and governmentally commanded outcomes. Regardless of how incredible the film content is, it’s never worth money related fines and prison time – also the genuine unspooling of the incomplete movie if and when the maker gets nailed. At the same time, it is stunning to perceive the number of imitation film makers in reality attempt to glide their own “venture plan”, total with bombastic foreseen multipliers of the movies figures of the popular movies “E.T.” and “Jurassic Park” consolidated. They draft these monsters with their own sheer innovativeness and creative mind, yet normally with no diversion or film attorney or other lawful guidance. I’m certain that a portion of these makers consider themselves “visionaries” while composing the plan. Diversion lawyers and the remainder of the bar, and seat, may will in general consider them, all things being equal, as planned ‘Litigants’.


Types and Features of Some Corner Shower Enclosures

Shower enclosures are a place where someone gets in order to bathe. A shower enclosure may therefore include a tray, door or a shower tray and door that have inline or side panels. They are of various types, and include enclosures made of glass, enclosures without a frame and corner shower enclosures.

Corner shower enclosures are available that you can build at certain corners in the bathroom to save space. It happens that the corner shower enclosures tell which type of corner to place them best. The following information talks about the features of certain types of corner enclosures. The first type is the ASB Round Corner Bathroom Enclosure. This corner shower enclosure measures thirty-four inches by seventy-eight inches and is made of the latest shiny white colored material. It comes with a place to rest your feet and offers three shelves for storing important products. Its material is strong and durable and one is able to drain out unwanted water and cover the enclosure with a drain cover when not using it. The price of this enclosure is affordable and it is a good choice for those who require putting an enclosure in a small space. The other corner enclosure available is the Neo-angle Corner Shower Rod Set enclosure with Ceiling Brace. This corner enclosure has a forty-five degree neo angle and it has a width of thirty-six inches, a length of seventy-two inches and a height of thirty-six inches. It also includes a thirty-six inch ceiling that you can adjust and weighs eight pounds. Its outer surface is made of chrome. It is appropriate if you have a Jacuzzi or a corner bathtub. The other feature of this shower enclosure are weighty die cast wall brackets that one can use to place things on and in this way maintain its balance. It is possible to adjust the enclosure into many directions as the space allows and the material used to make it is high class and strong.


Quick Guide to Corner Desks for Small Spaces

Corner desks for small spaces come in a vast array of colors which makes them the perfect addition to any room–home office or otherwise.

You’ll find that corner desks easily accommodate small spaces, specifically because they utilize tight corners that may otherwise be considered useless or wasted. They help you supplement a larger standard desk with a space-conservative option.

You’ll find that they work well in any environment, whether work or home.

Function Meets Style

You’ll find that most, if not all, corner desks provide a beautiful element to a room. A corner unit can be used as a decorative and functional piece of furniture. Choosing the right desk for your corner can make all the difference between a drab room and a fab room. You can employ them for various tasks, whether for writing, computing or something unconventional.

L-Shaped Desks for Small Spaces

There are various types of corner workstations. Some are L-shaped, which tend to be classified as larger, bulkier options and they may be an option you only want to select when you need a large work area to accomplish writing and computing tasks without having one interfere with other.

Vertical Desks for Small Spaces

Vertical desks generally are better on floor space than L-shaped corner units. They sit at a 90 degree angle and are shaped like a “V”, and they occupy a small portion of space from two adjoining walls. Their space saving advantages come by offering you storage space that builds on top of itself–from top to bottom.

You’ll find that the vertical-styled workstations will often not only save you space but many of them will also include a shelving area that can be used to store books, a printer, and on top of that, it may include a file cabinet.

This allows you to easily create order in a small space and clear clutter. Most of your office supplies are in one space as opposed to being stationed on top of various pieces of furniture throughout the room–giving you the option to locate whatever you need at arm’s length.



Five Steps to Achieve Success: How to Be SWIFT and Accomplish Your Goals

Sometimes we have a great idea, but never follow our plan. This can be destructive and cause us to not reap the benefits of our hard work. It is important to move forward and to stop overanalyzing ideas in order to create more success in life.

Have you ever had an idea for a business or an idea for a book? You wrote down your idea; you investigated the idea, and yet, somehow you never put your plan in action.

We can never research an idea until it is foolproof; but at some point, we have to follow our instincts, and go with it.

Putting your plan in action is key to becoming successful in all areas of life. Without action, there is no success. We cannot allow fear to keep us from putting our plan into action.

Don’t wait too long. While you are still dreaming about your idea, someone else can put the plan in action. Once I had an idea for a book. discussed it with several friends, and started writing it. Several months later, I was searching on the web and discovered that someone else had written a book on the same subject I was thinking about publishing.

Simply put, I was too slow; it took me too long to put the plan into action. While I spent too much time researching, the other person was already publishing.

Has anything similar ever happened to you?

At some point, after we have researched our ideas we must move swiftly to the next level. Otherwise, we can overanalyze to the point of paralyzing our thoughts and we will never achieve success.

This year, resolve to be SWIFT and watch your dreams become realities.

To be successful, put your plan into action by applying these five success principles to be SWIFT and accomplish your goals:

1. S- Set your goal, and See yourself accomplishing your goal. Make sure your goal is specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and time-bound. Give yourself a deadline for when you will accomplish the goal.

Visualizing yourself accomplishing your goal is of utmost importance. Think like an athlete. The greatest athletes in the world use visualization techniques to accomplish extraordinary feats. They constantly visualize exactly what they need to do to make sure they get that winning touchdown, field goal, or home run. Make it a habit to take the time every morning to visualize that you have accomplished your goal.

2. W- Write down your ideas, and work your action plan. Commit to work on your plan consistently. Make it a habit to review and sharpen your ideas on a routine basis.


Swift’s Criticism of Society in “A Modest Proposal”

Anglo-Irish writer Jonathan Swift’s “A Modest Proposal” (anonymously published in 1729) is a powerful political satire about the economic and social conditions of the poor in Ireland under British rule. The essay is rich with references to political events in England and Ireland in the 18th century. Swift takes ‘irony’ as the best weapon to attack on all kinds of vice and injustice prevailing in the society. Now we will see how Swift criticizes the society in his essay.

Before, entering into our discussion we are to know something the miserable condition of that Ireland. Actually the misfortune of Ireland begins when, in 1541, the Irish recognizes England’s Henry viii, a Protestant, as king of Ireland. The protestant landlords acquire almost ten percent of estates. Meanwhile, a law is enacted limiting the rights of Irish to hold government office, purchase, real estate and get education. Consequently, many of Irish flee away and those who remain live in poverty disease and starvation.

The essayist, at the very beginning of the essay, states the deplorable economic condition and social picture of Ireland under the British rule. As the author says:

“IT is a melancholly Object to those, who walk through this great Town, or travel in the Country; when they see the Streets, the Roads, and Cabbin-doors crowded with Beggars of the Female Sex, followed by three, four, or six Children, all in Rags, and importuning every Passenger for an Alms.”

Moreover, the author fears that, when the infants of these beggars grow up, “either turn Thieves for want of Work; or leave their dear Native Country, to fight for the Pretender in Spain, or sell themselves to the Barbadoes.”

This miserable situation is, in fact, resulted by the indifference of English administration and the oppression of landlords. Instead of solving the problem the British government shows a great carelessness to the repeated appeals to feed those hungry mouths.

Now, swift, as an English patriot finds out a “fair, cheap, and easy Method of making these Children sound and useful Members of the Commonwealth”. He wants to come with a proposal in such a manner, as he says:

“… as, instead of being a Charge upon their Parents, or the Parish, or wanting Food and Raiment for the rest of their Lives; they shall, on the contrary, contribute to the Feeding, and partly to the Cloathing, of many Thousands.”

Swift criticizes the authority by prospecting that this scheme “will prevent those voluntary Abortions, and that horrid Practice of Women murdering their Bastard Children” which is “too frequent among us”. His criticism towards the English administration becomes more clear when he doubts that, the poor innocent babies are killed “more to avoid the Expence than the Shame”.


When The Moon Turns Blood Red

You may not realize that the Moon can turn a blood red color. At least that’s what I thought until the Moon turned blood red on 28th September 2015. Find out more about my experience of the red moon and learn more about why it happens!

With all the talk of Mars recently, if you was in areas where the celestial event of the Moon was happening, you would have thought that you was looking at Mars and not our Moon on the 28th of September 2015!


  • What happened?


The Moon was a Super Moon, and on top of that it was a Total Lunar Eclipse of the Moon. Being a Super Moon made the Moon closer to us, and so made for seeing a spectacular celestial event in all its glory.


  • What is a Total Lunar Eclipse?


Like how we see a Solar eclipse and the Sun gradually fades away and if you have a total Solar eclipse, then the skies turn to night for a short period of time. With the Lunar eclipse, the same thing happens but with the Moon.

The Total Lunar Eclipse essentially made the Moon to turn a blood red colour after it started to go through the eclipse.

It is a very odd sight to see and the Moon shifting to a blood red color. Immediately I felt like I wanted our original Moon back in all its pure white color that we are all accustomed to!


  • Why Does The Moon Turn Blood Red?


The red Moon happens due to a process called Rayleigh Scattering and is the same process that makes our skies to be blue in color!


Europa: Jupiter’s Icy Water-Moon

In the colder, darker outer regions of our Solar System, a quartet of majestic giant planets circle our Sun. Of these gigantic, distant worlds, the banded behemoth, Jupiter, stands out in the crowd as by far the largest planet in our Sun’s family. Jupiter, the “King of Planets”, reigns in splendor from where it is situated beyond the terrestrial planet Mars, and the Main Asteroid Belt that separates the two very different sibling worlds. Jupiter is classified as a gas-giant that may–or may not–contain a small solid core well-hidden beneath its dense and heavy blanket of gas. This gigantic gaseous world is also orbited by an impressive retinue of mostly icy moons, four of which–Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto–were discovered by Galileo in 1610, and were named the Galilean moons in his honor. Of the four moons, small, cracked, icy Europa stands out as a potentially habitable small moon-world, that is thought to have a sloshing, swirling subsurface ocean of life-sustaining liquid water beneath its cracked shell of ice. In November 2019, this possibility was further strengthened because planetary scientists received new evidence that this important ingredient for sustaining life as we know it may sometimes be shot out into space from enormous geysers pock-marking the frozen moon’s mysterious surface. Life as we know it cannot exist without liquid water, and its presence indicates the possibility–though not the promise–that life exists on this distant moon-world.

Four decades ago, a traveling Voyager spacecraft obtained the first up close and personal images of Europa. These pictures revealed brownish cracks tearing through the moon’s icy surface, making Europa look like a jumbo-sized egg with a cracked shell. Missions to the outer Solar System over the past forty years have since collected sufficient additional data about Europa to make it a high-priority target of investigation for NASA scientists searching for life beyond Earth.

What makes Europa so intriguing is the fascinating possibility that it may possess all of the ingredients necessary for the emergence and evolution of life. In November 2019, an international team of astronomers, led by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland, announced that they were able to confirm the presence of water in the plumes of Europa’s geysers. They did this by directly measuring the water molecule itself. Up until their study, no one had been able to confirm the presence of water in these plumes by directly measuring the water molecule. The team measured water vapor by studying Europa through the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii, one of the world’s biggest telescopes.